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Miembro Semi-Senior
Miembro Semi-Senior

Registrado: 06 Jul 2001
Mensajes: 698

MensajePublicado: Lun Oct 14, 2002 01:44    Asunto: Anglosajones Responder citando

Mucho se ha hablado y escrito acerca de las culturas Griega, Romana, Hebrea, incluso de la Hispana, y las Precolombinas

Pero...¿cual creen ustedes que es la cultura propia, original, esencial, de los ex-bárbaros de lenguaje gutural que ahora y aquí manejan el planeta?

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Miembro Semi-Senior
Miembro Semi-Senior

Registrado: 30 Sep 2002
Mensajes: 300
Ubicación: Monterrey, Mexico

MensajePublicado: Lun Oct 14, 2002 02:02    Asunto: Vacío Responder citando

La cultura anglosajona en la actulidad procede basicamente de la fusion de los pueblos sajones con los normandos mas o menos por la epoca de Ricardo Corazon de Leon.
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Miembro Senior
Miembro Senior

Registrado: 07 May 2002
Mensajes: 9825
Ubicación: Miami

MensajePublicado: Lun Oct 14, 2002 02:42    Asunto: Vacío Responder citando

It´s understood that the author reads, writes and speaks English fluently. Otherwise he wouldn´t be so interested in American Culture. There´s no doubt he can take advantage of the following links.

American Authors

Allen, James Lane
Alcott, Louisa May
Apess, William
Austin, Mary

Bonnin, Gertrude Simmons (Zitkala-Sa)
Bradford, William
Bradstreet, Anne
Bryant, William Cullen


Cabeza da Vaca, Alvar Nunez
Cable, George Washington.
Chesnutt, Charles W.
Chopin, Kate
Clemens, Samuel L.
Cooke, Rose Terry
Cooper, James Fenimore
Craddock, Charles Egbert (Mary N. Murfree)
Crane, Stephen
Crevecoeur, J. Hector St. Jean de


Davis, Rebecca Harding
Deland, Margaret
de las Casas, Bartolome
Diaz del Castillo, Bernal
Douglass, Frederick
Dickinson, Emily
Dreiser, Theodore
Dunbar, Paul Laurence
Dunbar-Nelson, Alice Moore


Eastman, Charles (Ohiyesa)
Eaton, Edith Maude (Sui-Sin Far)
Edwards, Jonathan
Emerson, Ralph Waldo
Equiano, Olaudah


Far, Sui-Sin (Edith Maude Eaton)
Franklin, Benjamin
Frederic, Harold
Freeman, Mary E. Wilkins
Freneau, Philip
Fuller, Margaret

Gale, Zona
Garland, Hamlin
Gilman, Charlotte Perkins (Stetson)
Grant, Robert


Harper, Frances E. W.
Harris, Joel Chandler
Harte, Bret
Hawthorne, Nathaniel
Holley, Marietta
Howells, William Dean

Irving, Washington


Jackson, Helen Hunt
Jacobs, Harriet
James, Henry
Jewett, Sarah Orne


King, Grace
Kirkland, Caroline
Kirkland, Joseph
Larcom, Lucy
Larsen, Nella
Lathrop, George Parsons (critic)
London, Jack


Mather, Cotton
Melville, Herman
Miller, Arthur
Morton, Thomas
Murfree, Mary N. (Charles Egbert Craddock)


Norris, Charles Gilman
Norris, Frank

Occom, Samson
Ohiyesa(Charles Eastman)


Perry, Thomas Sergeant (critic)
Phillips, David Graham
Poe, Edgar Allan


Robinson, Edwin Arlington
Rowlandson, Mary
Rowson, Susanna
Ruiz de Burton, Maria Amparo

Sedgwick, Catharine Maria
Sewall, Samuel
Smith, John
Stowe, Harriet Beecher
Sui-Sin Far (Edith Maude Eaton)


Taylor, Edward
Thoreau, Henry David
Thorpe, Thomas Bangs
Twain, Mark


Warner, Charles Dudley
Wharton, Edith
Wheatley, Phillis
Whitman, Walt
Williams, Roger
Winthrop, John
Woolman, John
Woolson, Constance Fenimore

Yezierska, Anzia
Zitkala-Sa(Gertrude Simmons Bonnin)

Literary Movements

Plantation Tradition
Puritanism in New England
Captivity Narratives
Concord Chronology
Romance and Novel
Conversion Narratives
Salem Witch Trials
Covenant Theology
Domestic Fiction
Sermon Structure
Early American Novel
Slave Narratives
Southwestern Humor
Local Color
Meditation Tradition
Travel Narratives
Native American Literature

So far it´s just literature. More to come.

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Miembro Senior
Miembro Senior

Registrado: 07 May 2002
Mensajes: 9825
Ubicación: Miami

MensajePublicado: Lun Oct 14, 2002 17:42    Asunto: Vacío Responder citando

Painting. American Impressionism and Modernism.
¡Oh, boy, this is great! I´m sure it´ll please the author!

American Impressionism to Modernism: A Brief History

Events in Europe

Gustave Courbet (1819 - 1877) was one of the first artists to openly confront the world and publicly go against "the system" and the status quo. As the first avant-garde artist he opened the door to freedom of expression in art, although his work had little to no comment on the political or social life in France. Courbet exposed through unorthodox views what he wanted the public to see, not what was traditionally expected to be presented in art.

During the early nineteenth century freedom of expression was almost foreign to the art world. The now famous 1863 Parisian Salon des Refusés proved to be a landmark in the history of Modern art.

Napoleon III set up the Salon des Refusés to appease those painters (Monet, Manet, Pissarro, Whistler, Jongkind and others) who were insulted by the rejection of their works by the official Salon. Artists who had gone against established and acceptable painting techniques were given, for the first time, the right to a public viewing and this exhibition marked the beginning of an artistic independence.

Dusseldorf, Munich and Paris were the three leading art meccas of the nineteenth century. Although Eugene Delacroix (1799 - 1863) had taken an independent stand against the value of technical painting as the Academicians taught it, it was Claude Monet (1840 - 1926) who revolutionized art by organizing an independent group of artists who would exhibit their recalcitrant canvases in an 1874 show which would shock critics and public alike. Their purpose was to present new ideas and not "old tendencies, and hope for the adhesion of all serious artists." The show opened April 15, 1874, and when Louis Leroy characterized the entire exhibit as an "Exhibition of Impressionists", a title meant in jest and cued from Monets painting Impression-Sunrise (1872), the names "Impressionist" and "Impressionism" were born.

Threatened with the artists display of obstinate defiance of authority, critic J. Claretie said the artists "appear to have declared war on beauty." Under the banner of "Impressionism" painters launched an innovative concept of naturalism, showing new impressions of the visible world rather than the imitation of exact appearances. They perceived light as color sensations and were concerned with the effects of a fluid play of light. Color sensations were perceived as constantly changing, and forms as light reflected from a surface, while shadows were shown to be lights of a lower intensity. Light, not subject matter, became the most important aspect of their painting and this was foreign to the Salon painters ideology. Variations of hue and intensity of light were stressed. The Impressionists were not dramatically concerned with line. They applied their paint to the canvas in small daubs and dashes of paint in order to heighten the effect of vibrations and changes of light effects.

"French Imitations"

By 1885 hundreds of American painters had gone to Paris to meet and absorb information from the bold canvases of the Impressionists. John Joseph Enneking (1838 - 1941) had studied in Germany, Italy and in Paris with Pissarro and Monet by 1873, and returned to influence Boston painters by 1875.Mary Cassatt was specifically working with Degas by 1873; and by 1883 Theodore Robinson had worked with Monet at Giverny, while numerous other Americans were in the United States carrying the Impressionist banner through the art schools and museums. Boston had rejected most innovations in art, but Alexander Cochrane (a trustee at the Museum of Fine Arts) purchased Renoirs Grand Canal, Venice, and Lilla Cabot Ferry bought Monets landscape at Etretat and presented it to Boston society in 1889. William Merritt Chase and the influential John Singer Sargent both encouraged patrons to purchase works by Monet.

In 1886, as the originators of the French Impressionist movement were holding their last organized group show in Paris, three hundred and ten Works in Oil and Pastel by the Impressionists of Paris were sent to New York City by the Durand-Ruel Galleries. This established and respected firm had previously promoted with success the French Barbizon school in New York which made it easier to obtain public acceptance for the Impressionists. In 1891, the same year Edmund C. Tarbell and Frank W. Benson were given their first two-man show in Boston, Durand-Ruels Monet, Pissarro and Sisley extravaganza overshadowed the Americans efforts.

In the following year the first one-man show of a French Impressionist held in America was given in Monets honor at Bostons St. Botolph Club. Twenty-one of Monets works were lent by Bostonians which proved that this Frenchman had gained an important place in the American collectors conscience. Although Tarbell and Benson had started an important art school (1889 - 1938) at the museum in that town and had gained national acclaim for their art, it took decades for the public to accept their work and those of their followers as anything more than "French imitations." Not only had the French painters given birth to Impressionism, they kept a tight hold on its umbilical cord of recognition, and it was only in a rare moment of objectivity that any American painter was given credit for fine work if that work even resembled a Frenchmans style, subject matter or flair. However, public recognition and reward came fleetingly.

Competent American painters within the Impressionist tradition included Dennis Miller Bunker, John Joseph Enneking, Willard Metcalf, Childe Hassam, Thomas W. Dewing, William Merritt Chase, Frank W. Benson, Edmund C. Tarbell, Edward Redfield, Charles H. Davis, Ernest Lawson, Frederick Carl Frieseke, Robert Reid, Edward Henry Potthast, John Henry Twachtman, William S. Barrett and J. Alden Weir, along with the \French-Americans" James McNeill Whistler, Mary Cassatt, John Singer Sargent and Theodore Robinson (expatriates who became the most sought after of the group primarily because of their French connections).

"The Ten"

In 1898, ten American painters led an active defense against what they considered to be poor American art. They tried to attract attention to fine canvases painted by native Americans. They showed the art world that their Impressionism could legitimately earn respect and recognition regardless of pedigree or the acceptance or rejection by a jury. Theirs was a bold step during a period of national insecurity. When many painters were suffering from poverty and neglect ten men left security and reputations by the wayside and ventured out into the unknown world of freedom in art by resigning from the Society of American Artists and the National Academy of Design. By so doing, "The Ten" (as they became dubbed) helped American artists escape from the stale art concepts and rules of past eras and helped lead the way to Modernism, placing the stepping stones for "The Eight" and the Armory Show. By resigning from the established and leading art societies, much like Monet and his followers had done in 1874, "The Ten" proved that American artists could exhibit whatever they wanted to show.

The two main teachers of "The Ten" were William Merritt Chase and Edmund C. Tarbell. Together these two men taught Impressionism to over 4,000 artists... and their diversified and challenging painting techniques are being followed and improved upon today.

In a capsule, "The Ten" was a self-confident group of painters who combined high-keyed plein air Impressionism with the genteel Boston school tradition, the academic strain of Chase and Twachtmans more radical poetic renditions of nature. Some critics felt "The Ten" had merely conquered a technically proficient, academic or formalized art from the ateliers of Gérome, Bouguereau, Gleyre, Laurens, Monet and others. As American Impressionism became more accepted by the public, new art innovators considered the Impressionists to be "old hat" and boring. Although "The Ten" had not complied with the rules and regimentations of the National Academy in 1898, by 1903 most of them had reentered its ranks, and they were justly accused of playing a political game in order to be financially successful. As their complacency re-emerged, a lack of growth accompanied it. Thus, by 1904, revolt once again started to fester within the artistic cults of American artists who wanted to show independent talents which might be foreign to the accepted Academicians formulas. Many painters showed discontentment by expressing their views in non-juried exhibitions where provincialism and Brahmin puritanism were tackled head-on with new expressions of realism.

A New Century

The new era artists sought solutions to any and all artistic problems facing them. They were bored with, and felt strapped into, the dictates of the past and by 1905, John Sloan, Everett Shinn, Jane Peterson and Robert Henri felt Impressionism was a hen which laid rotten eggs. Experimentation, optimism and the advancement of progress during the era of industrialization encouraged the individual artist to seek independence.

During the period from 1900 to 1930 Americans believed that they were strong enough to solve any economic or social horror because they saw progress marching forward. The works and thoughts of Sigmund Freud questioned the accepted mores and beliefs of the Victorian age and altered literature, science and religious thinking in America. The new "liberal" had an experimental mind, and tradition was assaulted by labor-capital partnerships, socialism and hundreds of inventions. Henry Ford catapulted the idea of mass production, while gasoline engines and electric power thrust the United States deeper into a fast-moving, progressive, optimistic and complicated attitude. As advertising increased in
magazines, beaks and newspapers, production work forces expanded and needs rose. This new demand gave traditional artists a chance to work. But monopolies within industry became a devastating problem and wealthy moguls were hated and questioned by the lower and middle classes. This created an air of revolt which in turn developed new traditions and ideas. The cues for reform lurked almost everywhere.

One twentieth century egocentric genius, Alfred Stieglitz, was as radical as any artist of the first decade. Feeling that art and its end results were all- important, this maverick (as he was often called) opened his Photo-Session Gallery (nicknamed \291" in 1905 where he exhibited any work of art which could act as a protagonist going against staid art concepts. Stieglitz defended anything new in art and battled for modern art. He won artistic renown for his innovative photography and introduced hundreds of American and European Modernists to the American public.

After World War I and the closing of Gallery 291, Alfred Stieglitz showed the courage of his newest convictions when he denounced French Modernists (a group he had previously promoted) as being the commercial gimmick and packaging of 59th Street dealers. His last gallery,\An American Place", opened in 1930 but did not receive the glamour or applause which \291" had commanded. Because of his radical stand regarding the French Modernists, the once declared art-messiah was reduced in appeal and popularity. However, Stieglitz gave the public the unprecedented opportunity to seriously survey, view and attempt to understand American and European modern art. His coterie, or stable, included Max Weber, John Marin, Oscar Bluemner, Arthur Dove, Georgia OKeeffe (his wife), Alfred Henry Maurer, Charles Demuth, Abraham Walkowitz and Marsden Hartley. These artists would be instrumental in turning the tide of American art several degrees in the direction of freedom.

World War I produced economic and political strains which encouraged labor revolts and strengthened socialism. In 1912, Woodrow Wilson, a liberal Democrat, was elected President of the United States. His election stimulated people to push for social justice, womens suffrage and to be vehemently against child labor and slavery.

"The Eight" and the Ash Can School

By 1906, Pablo Picasso entirely broke away from natural beauty with his first public display of Les Demoiselles dAvignon. By 1908, Cubism became all-important in the Bateau-Lavoir group (Leger, Picasso, Braque and so forth) while Robert Henri and John Sloan organized a group of American realists called The Eight" to paint facts directly and go against the ideology of tradition-for-traditions sake. Picasso proclaimed painters should paint what they think, not what they see, and by 1908 his art based itself on the disappearance of the object. "The Eight", however, were more conservative than the Bateau-Lavoir group and tried to show American life realistically no matter where that life took place. "The Eight" became the leading members of the Ash Can school. They no longer painted illustrative works or canvases which were painted to please a Brahmin or genteel society. Their works depicted bowery derelicts, prostitutes cavorting with sailors, run-down tenements, theater views, starving children begging along the streets of New York and gaunt portraits of commoners. They painted what they knew -- that which they saw daily, and that which they felt the public should be shown.

Robert Henri and Alfred Stieglitz, two crusading prophets within a new era of American art, led the way to Realism and Modernism in America. Henris philosophy (not necessarily his art) which was inspired from within the man, encouraged hundreds of painters to seek art inspiration within their own unique inner eye. They should produce works which interpret real life regardless of moral influences or beliefs, intellectualisms or political or religious views. Henris motto to the artist was to show real life from what the artist feels, and then to present that feeling in paint. In other words, the artist must be honest to himself or herself. Robert Henri was the catalyst whose philosophy made it possible for artists not to fear painting life as it is. He further suggested that art be fair-minded and show justice. If a painter must challenge the status quo and tradition in order to uncover injustice and truth, Henri felt the painter must do so. Like Alfred Stieglitz, Robert Henri nurtured open-mindedness and told artists to accept all beliefs in order to see the good and bad in each doctrine...

By 1910 nonobjective (abstract) art was born with Kandinsky in Munich. At this time Henris broadening American influence was emerging in the social conscious works of Gifford Beal, George Bellows, Rockwell Kent and Leon Kroll. Teaching artists not to paint mere pictures, Henri believed "all
art that is worthwhile is a record of intense life." Henri antagonized and threatened art conservatives. Many Academicians, therefore, dubbed Henri and his followers "Ash Can painters. This symbolic term was designed to degrade the artists and their art, for, in the eyes of the conservatives, "Ash Can" art was merely a justification for the portrayal of the ugly, seamier side of life.

The Ash Can school heralded life the real, the truth. The traditional Impressionists, who held beauty, fine art and technique to be all-important ingredients for good art saw the reality of the Ash Can school as artificial and purposely agitating and disgusting. The Impressionists claimed the Ash Can painters created canvases of the cruder or more robust aspects of life to gain personal attention and that their art was a sad display of nontechnical art training. Although "The Eight" have been criticized for their seeming dramatization of over concern for the oppression and social degradation of the poor, their works drew public attention to the lack of human dignity of their American subjects, from which their works illustrated the peoples struggle to obtain that dignity. "The Eights" humanistic social works showed that independence in art reigned, and this individualism challenged the publics aesthetic tolerance. Henri believed and taught that all men are capable of enriching or improving life and that each person has good potential. His philosophy is an optimistic one. Although some critics label Henri as the father of Americas native school of Realism, credit should also be given to Henris predecessors Thomas Eakins and Thomas Pollock Anshutz who each taught Realism in Philadelphia while Robert Henri and the rest of "The Eight\ were newspapermen and illustrators in that same city.

While Henri and Stieglitz were developing new art trends in America, Expressionism was first exhibited in 1911 with works by Braque, Derain, Friesz, Picasso and Manguin in Berlin at the New Secession. Expressionism had been experimented with as early as 1907. Herwarth Walden created the term during a 1912 exhibition in his Der Sturm Gallery. Loosely, the term labeled anyone who had gone beyond Realism and/or Impressionism, and it became a spontaneous label for anyone who could not otherwise be categorized. The Expressionists gave outward expression to feelings and ideas. They distorted visual reality but claimed this distortion not for pictorial ends. Expressionistic works are often somber or melancholy, hjgh-strung or passionate. They show an anxiety, a tension, a revolt, a dissatisfaction or torment. Out of this school came many other tendencies which lead deeper into abstract painting.

1913 Armory Show

Art is usually related to specific social climates. A decade of artistic and social revolt predetermined the artistic climate which lead to the cataclysmic 1913 Armory Show held in New York City. Prior to the Armory Show, the MacDowell Club exhibitions were unpretentious and too small in size to affect public awareness, but they nevertheless showed independent radical art. The 1910 Independent Show in New York City was also too insignificant to abolish established theories about what was or was not to be accepted as relevant American art. Modern art made its biggest impact during the Armory Show which opened February 17 and closed March 15, 1913.

This exhibit removed some of the glitter surrounding Monets Impressionism and that of "The Ten." It also replaced in significance the realism seen in the paintings of the Ash Can school. The Armory Show took over where Stieglitz and Henri philosophically left off. This monumental exhibition sent a shockwave through the nonchalance of American academic art. This mammoth unjuried show stupefied the public which showed unreasonable opposition to the exhibition. The masses were outraged, confused, uneasy, ridiculing and overwhelmed by the art which they viewed. The Armory Show attempted to display all of the artistic developments which led to the current 1913 art trends. Works were shown by Ingres, Corot, Monet, Cassal, Rodin, Van Gogh, Cézanne, Daumier, Dufy, Friesz, Matisse, Archipenko, Picasso, Kandinsky, Maillol, Brancusi, Rousseau, Davies, Dabo, Kuhn, Dove, Myers and many other artists.

Some critics labeled the contemporary artists as neurotic psychopathic freaks. Others said they were fakes who couldnt draw. Kenyon Cox, a respected (but conservative) artist/critic called the Modernists works "cheap notoriety" and he accused the artists of being dangerous anarchists. By 1913 the Orphists (or Synchronists) were more abstract than the Cubists. They overlapped planes of contrasting brilliant color in abstract design, a trait which conservatives like Kenyon Cox could not begin to comprehend. Stanton MacDonald-Wright and Morgan Russell were advocates of this tendency of modern art which was exhibited at the Armory Show. Although some of the art shown (such as Marcel DuChamps futuristic Nude Descending the Staircase) was given wide publicity because it was considered to be totally a "horrid" work painted by an "insane artist," the Armory Show was instrumental in focusing public awareness and critics attention on all contemporary art.

Anything Goes

After the Armory show the strain of realism which Robert Henri and Alfred Stieglitz had nurtured in America was overshadowed (or dominated) by the spreading presence of Modernism. Post-impressionistic Realism would regain recognition after the World War with works by the members of "The Eight" and Glenn O. Coleman, Jerome Myers, Charles Burchfield, George Bellows and Guy Penn du Bois. The Armory Show opened a free-for-all attitude in the art world and an anything goes" motto reigned. However, the movement was against painters who imitated appearances. This bias indicated that only new" was virtuous and that, in fact, everything did not go.

The 1913 Armory Show generated a fervor of Post-impressionist exhibits, and new names were given out freely to painting innovators who could not be placed in an already accepted art category. Faddists, for instance (1913/14) were Modernists with often incoherent designs but coherent ideas. Cubism, Futurism, Dadaism and Abstractism grew out of, and were promoted by, the Armory Show. "Dada" (meaningless French baby talk) signified exactly that -- the lack of a message. The Dada theories indicated radical subversion and profound crisis and therefore Dadaism was not comfortably accepted in America. The Fauvists (John Marin, Walt Kuhn, Max Weber, Marsden Hartley) who showed wildness, distortions, emotionalism and violent or intense dynamics, were all influenced by Cubism. Works with deliberately conflicting lines, shapes and logic were the norm.

Cubism, the most influential movement of Modernism, attempts to find the essential truths of the material world -- not as the world appears -- but on a fundamental deeply abstracted level. Cubism began with the Armory Show and lasted almost ten years under the inspiration of Patrick Bruce, K. Cramer, Man Ray, J. Stella, S. Davis, A. Dove, C. Demuth, J. Marin, M. Russell, MacDonald-Wright, Feininger, Dasburg, Dickinson, Bluemner and others too numerous to name. While Cubism was developing, Malevich founded Supermatism in Moscow in 1913, which carried abstractionist ideas to the absolute limit of possibilities. Everything is permissible in Supermatism.

Although Modernism often has a deeply personal, lyrical, romantic, social or moral side to it, the American public had a hard time understanding or even tolerating most of it. When Abstractism took hold, the tendency to go for the pure" in art, regardless of subject matter or reality, was an accepted artists trend which was unencumbered by recognizable object form. The public, however, did not comprehend it. By 1913 most American Modernists had been to Europe and the majority of American radical developments in Modernism were strongly influenced by the French (especially by expatriated French painters residing in the United States: DuChamps; Picabia; Crotti). Much like the impressionists before them, the Modernists from Europe were given credit for most of the innovations of the era. Yet another goal set by the Armory Shows attempt to highlight the leadership of American artists had failed: The Americans were still second to the French.

The members of the Ash Can school were noble in their attempt to give artists an opportunity to freely express themselves in their art. Out of the Ash Can school came social realism in art, the 14th Street school and the rural American Scenists. The 14th Street school, under Kenneth Hayes Miller, exploited folklore realism and gave genre local color and action as seen in the paintings from the Greenwich Village artists (Reginald Marsh, Morris Kanto, Kenneth Hayes Miller, Raphael Soyer and Moses Soyer). These men rivaled the members of "The Eight". A counterpart to these painters was Edward Hopper whose mansions, railroads and false fronts gained public acclaim partially helped by his close association with the Whitney Museum director, Lloyd Goodrich.

The socially oriented Ash Can canvases retained their popularity for a short while until the school was superseded by the radical non-social art of Modernism. The decline in their popularity was a direct consequence of their promotion of the Modernists in the Armory Show. Because of the growing public appreciation of foreigners art, jealousies and hatred heated the already dynamic controversy over who was "right" in art -- the Americans or the French? The Modernists or the Academicians? The latter two groups were arrogant and intolerant of the other. American Impressionists and Modernists were considered neophytes compared to their French counterparts, and acclaim was unevenly distributed throughout the artistic world while traditional ideologies clashed dramatically with those of the Modernist movements.

Hysteria -- almost of lunatic proportions -- reigned from 1913 to 1918. Conservatives felt threatened by the Modernists. This was a case of mutual over-reaction, although the Modernists claimed to have wanted only to broaden the horizon of artistic possibilities. When they turned their backs socially on the more traditional painters and when they publicly denounced some artists work, the Moderns refuted the ideals which they themselves cherished. Because the traditional painters often thought of their Modern colleagues as iconoclastic charlatans the two Sides rarely saw eye-to-eye.

The objectives of the Armory Show, therefore, were only partially met. The organizers publicly stated that no one was to be rejected from the exhibition despite the fact that many artists were refused. When artistically non-trained Mrs. Woodrow Wilson was accepted by the Armory Show organizers to exhibit her works, many notable artists who had been rejected formed the Allied Artists of America, attempting to give American art an even wider base. While crusading for truth, the organizers of the Armory Show tried to expose self-deception and biases; but in fact they deceived each other and were considered to be esoteric by outsiders who knew the truth about their organization.

In January, 1914, in an attempt to heal all wounds, the National Arts Club of New York City gave a Modernist exhibit and in the following year, Futurist works, highlighting those of Marinetti, were shown at the Panama-Pacific International Exhibition in San Francisco.

Individualism, a virtuous and noble trait within art, often conflicts with mainstream beliefs of the status quo. But time proves to be a healer as well as a forgiver. Impressionism and various arms of Modernism provoked eclectic aspects of thought, inspired creative freedom and broadened our understanding of what an artist is capable of developing and nurturing to maturity -- both artistically and psychologically.

The period from 1913 to 1915 proved to be an explosive, dynamic, intrinsically creative (but hysteric) time slot in which the art communities throughout America and Europe had to learn truths about themselves. They each watched innovations and traditions come and go and many artists learned they had the right to choose on which side of Modernism they wished to work. The art world was faced with overwhelming conflicts within its own ranks and it was continuously challenged and stunned by its own complex diversity of ideologies, styles and seemingly insoluble problems. As conflicts developed and eased between one school of thought and another, certain tendencies were accepted and developed while others were rejected as unstable or meaningless".

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Miembro Semi-Senior
Miembro Semi-Senior

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MensajePublicado: Lun Oct 14, 2002 20:09    Asunto: Vacío Responder citando

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Miembro Semi-Senior
Miembro Semi-Senior

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MensajePublicado: Mar Oct 15, 2002 01:59    Asunto: Vacío Responder citando

Bien, muchas gracias Bluemoon, ahora puede retirarse a su jaula
pero en realidad la idea no era copiar catálogos publicitarios de alguna tienda de libros
Inténtelo de nuevo.

El tema va más bien en el sentido del aporte de JPINAHDZ. Un análisis histórico acerca de los orígenes de estos Hombres del Norte europeo que ahora dominan el mundo desde EEUU e Inglaterra

Los Normandos a que alude JpinaHdz deben su nombre a ser Hombres del Norte, provenientes del riguroso clima frío del Norte de Europa

Recordemos que hasta el siglo VI de la Era Crsitiana, tanto los Anglos, como Sajones, Normandos y Germanos, eran pueblos casi salvajes, guerreros sanguinarios, que deslumbrados por la opulencia de Roma tomaron prestada su cultura y religión

La influencia del latín en el idioma Inglés no es despreciable

Tal como en una época los Romanos asimilaron la cultura Griega, los Anglosajones se vistieron más tarde con una cultura ajena, la Romana

Pero...¿qué rasgos atávicos subyacen bajo ese aparente barniz cultural?

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Miembro Senior

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MensajePublicado: Mie Oct 16, 2002 15:00    Asunto: Vacío Responder citando

Muy interesante este tema. Por el 400 y pico en Inglaterra habitaban los jutos y anglosajones en el sur, al noroccidente los britanos y bien al norte los pictos (a quienes los romanos llamarían caledonios, por habitar en los bosques, y que quedarían por fuera del imperio después de la construcción de la muralla de Adriano). En Irlanda los Escotos.

Luego, como en el 520, los anglos y sajones habían tomado la tierra de los jutos, expulsándolos, y también se habían apropiado de buena parte de la de los britanos. Desde ahí empezaron.

Pero para conocer mejor sobre su espíritu, lo mejor es ir a las antiguas gestas. Anoche quise consultar un librito de historia de la literatura inglesa de Borges, pero me dí cuenta de que lo había regalado.

Ojalá alguien que lo tenga o que conozca del tema pudiera contarnos algo sobre esto.
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Miembro Senior
Miembro Senior

Registrado: 25 May 2001
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MensajePublicado: Mie Oct 16, 2002 16:08    Asunto: Vacío Responder citando

En realidad los anglos y sajones, eran pueblos que habitaban a lo que hoy corresponde el norte de Alemania, la región conocida como el Schlewig-Holstein (antigua comarca de Dinamarca, de hecho, casi toda Dinamarca es hoy la península de Jutlandia, país de los jutos).Se asentaron también en las Islas Frisias y parte de la actual Holanda. Estos pueblos pertenecen a la raza nórdica, que estuvo compuesta de muchos pueblos de los cuales nombro algunos como ej. vándalos, francos, teutones, jutos, suevos, svears (acuales suecos), alanos y muchos otros. Ya en época antigua hubo luchas internas entre diferentes confederaciones ,como eran la de los Francos (que posteriormente dieron nombre a Francia) a partir del imperio de Carlo Magno, que lidiaban entre sí con la liga de los anglos sajones establecidos más al norte, que desde aquella época ya se había establecido una rivalidad entre esas dos ligas. Desde el año 500 aprox. después de la caída del Imperio Romano, la islas Británicas, que estaban habitadas por "aborígenes" de origen celta (ver irlandeses, galeses, bretones, pictos y escoceses llegados de Irlanda), y que no son de origen nórdico fueron invadidas por los jutos, anglos y parte del pueblo sajón, que terminaron por someter a los celtas a su vez que incorporaron muchos de los adelantos, técnica, parte del idioma .Para concluir, INGLATERRA (ENGLAND), significa país de Anglos, no incluye a todas las islas británicas, si bien es el mayor país de los cuatro que componen la Gran Bretaña además de ESCOCIA, GALES E IRLANDA (de origen celta), hay gran rivalida inclusive hasta hoy en día, ver luchas entre IRLANDESES E INGLESES por las tierras usurpadas por los ingleses en el norte de irlanda conocida como el ULSTER, cap. Belfast.

Hace mucho tiempo, los habitantes de Jutlandia, los jutos, formaban una tribu aparte respecto al pueblo más guerrero danés que ocupaba las islas orientales. En época pagana, la península contaba con sus propios soberanos y tenía un gran poder. En sus tierras, el legendario monarca Harald Dienteazul inició el proceso que llevó a unificar las dos tribus en una nación cristiana. En los albores de la era vikinga, sin embargo, los batalladores daneses se habían extendido hacia el oeste, absorbiendo a los jutos, y el poder real pasó progresivamenete hacia Zealand. Y así permaneció durante siglos, al punto de hacer de los pausados estilos de vida y de la calma rural la impresión predominante que casi todos los visitantes tienen de Jutlandia. En realidad, la distancia a la que se halla de Copenhague hace de esta región el área más distinta e interesante del país. Al sur, Schleswig es un territorio por el que lucharon largamente los daneses y los alemanes, aunque dejando a un lado la ciudad inmaculadamente restaurada de Ribe, de hecho tiene poco interés. Esbjerg, más al norte, también es una ciudad sombría, aunque en su calidad de principal puerto de los transbordadores es posible que el viajero tenga que pasar por su término municipal. La vieja fortaleza militar de Fredericia merece que se le dedique una breve parada antes de llegar a Århus, a medio camino remontando la costa oriental, el principal centro urbano de Jutlandia y la segunda ciudad de Dinamarca. Tierra adentro, el paisaje es el más espectacular de todo el país, con parámos cubiertos de brezales, densos bosques y asombrosas gargantas. Para conocer la región, lo ideal es instalarse en la antigua Viborg, y desde allí se puede ir al norte hasta el vibrante Aalborg, en la orilla meridional del Limfjord, que se adentra en Jutlandia desde el norte, al otro lado del cual, en los alrededores de Skagen, en el extremo norte de la península, el paisaje se vuelve más agreste por la furia de las tormentas que azotan el territorio. Frederikshavn, de camino, es el puerto para los navíos que ponen proa a Noruega y Suecia.

La conquista de Inglaterra por los romanos se inicia en el año 55 a. C. con Julio Cesar y se puede decir que concluye con el abandono de las ultimas legiones romanas que van en socorro de Roma sitiada por Alarico en el año 410 d. C. Durante estos casi 500 años podemos ignorar por completo la conquista romana de la isla y la ocupación de la misma. Inglaterra fue una provincia mas del imperio, y a pesar de los que se han hecho para recuperar la historia de este periodo, hay que reconocer que quedan escasos puntos arqueológicos desparramados aquí y alla. Por supuesto ninguna literatura de aquel periodo ha sobrevivido y tuvieron que transcurrir muchos años antes de que se hiciese eco de alguna referencia procedente de los pueblos celtas y bretones, originales habitantes de las islas, a quienes los romanos ignoraron.

Coincidiendo con el descenso de las tribus germánicas del norte de Europa a la conquista del imperio romano en el sur, a mediados del siglo 5, se inician los primeros asaltos a algunas de estas tribus contra Inglaterra; en este momento se producía la marcha de las ultimas legiones de la isla. Sin embargo las esporádicas invasiones se tornan en rápidamente en invasiones y finalmente en asentamiento y colonizacion. Así que de modo gradual y no sin retrocesos -uno de los cuales parece atribuirse al legendario ARTURO los invasores empujaron a los celtas hacia el norte y hacia el oeste sacándolos de las tierras fértiles del este y el sur y llevándolos hacia Escocia, Gales y Cornualles, zona que globalmente se conoce con el nombre de celtic fringe. Es preciso señalar que al hablar de estas invasiones, Beda el Venerable, en un intento de ofrecer un modelo coherente en un periodo tan confuso, en su Historia agrupa genéricamente a estos grupos y los divide en tres formidables y poderosas tribus, los sajones, los anglos y los jutos, indicando que se interesan por la isla al considerarla mejor hábitat que el que hasta entonces disfrutaban en su lugar de origen.

Finalmente estos pueblos terminaron por repartirse el país en pequeños reinos de forma que a comienzos del siglo 7 nos hallamos ya con distribuciones independientes. Los dos al norte se unirán y los diez al sur del río Humber seguirán un proceso de fusión igualmente llegando así a consolidar la heptarchia con los reinos de Northumbria y Mercia de los anglos, wessex de los sajones y Kent de los jutos. Pero hasta el final del periodo anglosajón se llegara a una cierta unidad nacional. Desde el punto de vista de la historia literaria es importante destacar que los distintos reinos se alternan el liderazgo político, aunque este reconocimiento es mas una cuestión de carisma personal que de derecho de conquista.

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Miembro Senior
Miembro Senior

Registrado: 25 May 2001
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MensajePublicado: Mie Oct 16, 2002 16:10    Asunto: Vacío Responder citando

Y no olvidemos el idioma, pues el que un grupo determinado se comunique en una misma lengua, tiene sus razones.

Inglesa, Lengua,... idioma y principal medio de comunicación del Reino Unido, Estados Unidos, Canadá, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Suráfrica y otros países de influencia británica, donde lo entienden y hablan la gran mayoría de sus habitantes.

El inglés pertenece al grupo anglo-frisón incluido en la rama occidental de las lenguas germánicas, que es una subfamilia de las lenguas indoeuropeas. Está relacionado con la lengua frisia, algo menos con el neerlandés y ciertos dialectos del bajo alemán y mantiene vinculación con el moderno alto alemán.

Historia de la lengua

Se suelen reconocer tres etapas fundamentales en la evolución del inglés. Inglés antiguo, también conocido por anglosajón, fechado entre el año 449 y el 1066 o 1100. El inglés medio que abarca el periodo de tiempo comprendido entre los años 1066 o 1100 hasta el 1500. El moderno, con dos etapas, la clásica, desde el 1500 hasta el 1660 y la contemporánea, desde 1660 hasta nuestros días.

Inglés antiguo

Es una variante del germánico occidental, lengua que llevaron a la isla, en torno al año 449, los invasores jutos, anglos y sajones. A partir de entonces una nación que había estado romanizada y pertenecía al ámbito de la cultura celta, sobre todo los bretones, pasa a ser dominada por unos invasores que trajeron una lengua y una cultura denominada anglosajona. Se desarrolló una variante propia de la lengua donde cabe rastrear varios dialectos: el que hablaban los jutos, el sajón occidental que hablaban los sajones y las diversas variedades de los anglos. En el siglo IX el sajón occidental era la lengua de mayor difusión en la prosa escrita, gracias al rey Alfred, primer legislador de Inglaterra. Se tradujeron del latín las obras de san Agustín, san Gregorio y de Beda el Venerable. Sin embargo, el dialecto de los anglos fue la lengua del poema épico Beowulf de autor desconocido escrito un siglo antes, y de una poesía elegíaca de cierto interés.

La lengua que se fue configurando como idioma nacional sufrió la influencia del latín en dos momentos distintos: el primero, por el contacto con el imperio romano; el segundo, con la llegada y la evangelización de san Agustín, hasta el siglo XI. De esta época proceden las palabras relacionadas con la terminología religiosa, como altar, priest, psalm (altar, sacerdote, salmo respectivamente).

Como consecuencia de las invasiones viquingas a partir del siglo VIII, la lengua sufrió la influencia del nórdico antiguo. A este hecho se deben una serie de palabras relacionadas con el mar y la navegación y otras relativas a la organización social, como law, take, cut, both (ley, tomar, cortar, ambos respectivamente) y are, forma conjugada del verbo to be.

Era una lengua con mayor grado de flexión que la presente y por eso el orden de las palabras en la oración era más libre. Poseía un número dual para los pronombres personales, cuatro declinaciones para los nombres y dos para los adjetivos, así como variación de género. La conjugación verbal sólo poseía dos tiempos: el presente, que también adquiría el valor de presente profuturo, y el pasado. Era una lengua flexible para la composición de palabras porque su léxico era limitado y, junto al procedimiento morfológico para la creación de neologismos, adoptó y tomó numerosos préstamos de las lenguas con las que convivía y se relacionaba. Por esto es notoria la influencia del sustrato celta, aunque la investigación cifra en un 10% los nombres comunes de este origen. Otros restos celtas se cree que han llegado procedentes del galés, gaélico-escocés o escocés.

Inglés medio

Se suele fechar a partir de la conquista normanda en el 1066. Al final del periodo la lengua que empezó siendo flexiva y con declinación pasó a estar determinada por el orden sintáctico. Hacia el 1200 las tres o cuatro terminaciones del nombre en singular se habían reducido a dos; la marca del plural era la terminación -es. De las cuatro declinaciones del nombre se borra la -n final de cinco casos y la declinación se simplifica. Todas las vocales finales se neutralizan en -e. Los plurales masculinos de nominativo y acusativo se hacen en -as, que después se convertirán en -es. La única forma de plural antiguo que pervive en la lengua moderna es la de la palabra ox que hace oxen. También son restos del estadio antiguo los cambios en las vocales de las raíces en las palabras man, men (hombre, hombres) y foot, feet (pie, pies).

Durante este periodo desaparecen el género, el dual y la declinación de los pronombres en dativo y acusativo toman una forma única. Para evitar confusiones se adoptan los pronombres del escandinavo they, them y adquieren valor de relativo las formas who, which y that. En la conjugación desaparecen las terminaciones y se emplea una única forma para el singular y el plural en el pasado de los verbos llamados fuertes (equivalente a los irregulares del español).

A comienzos de este periodo tiene lugar la entrada en la lengua de muchas palabras de la vida cotidiana que proceden del escandinavo o nórdico, como egg, sky, sister, window (huevo, cielo, hermana, ventana, respectivamente). Los normandos, que hablaban en sus clases cultas francés, también aportaron alrededor de una novecientas palabras al anglosajón, como por ejemplo baron y noble, términos que las clases populares desconocían y debían usar en su trato con los nuevos señores. Aunque algunos nobles y el clero aprendían inglés, también introdujeron palabras francesas relacionadas con el gobierno, la iglesia, el ejército, los modales cortesanos y las que se referían a las artes, la enseñanza y la medicina.

En el siglo XIV adquiere verdadero prestigio la lengua de los anglos, en cuyas ciudades surgen las universidades y se desarrolla una próspera vida económica y cortesana. Es la zona conocida por Midland, cuyo centro es Londres, su influencia se extiende al sur del Támesis en Kent y Surrey. Queda consagrado su uso en las obras de Geoffrey Chaucer, John Gower y John Lydgate y por la impresión tipográfica que en esta lengua realizó William Caxton.

Como muestra de los dialectos del normando que han pervivido desde entonces hay que reseñar el escocés, idioma de las Tierras Bajas de Escocia.

Cambio del sistema vocálico

La transición del inglés medio al moderno viene marcada por una rigurosa evolución fonética en la pronunciación de las vocales, hecho que ocurrió entre los siglos XV y XVI. El lingüista danés Otto Jespersen lo ha denominado la gran mutación vocálica; consistió en alterar la articulación de las vocales en relación con las posiciones de los labios y la lengua, que por lo general se elevó en un grado. Este hecho supuso que de las 20 vocales que tenía el inglés medio, cambiaron dieciocho. La escritura permaneció inalterable a consecuencia de la irrupción de la imprenta. Hasta entonces el inglés medio poseía una escritura más fonética; todas las consonantes se pronunciaban, en tanto que ahora hay muchas mudas como l de walking.

El cambio se inició en el siglo XV, cuando todas las vocales largas se pronunciaron con una mayor elevación de la lengua y oclusión de la boca, todo eso en un grado. Las vocales que no eran susceptibles de esa mutación se diptongaron, por eso el fonema /i/ puede ser algo así como ee en need o ea, como en meant; el fonema /u/ es oo como en food. La mutación, que continúa, es la causa de que las vocales en inglés se pronuncien de forma diferente a las demás lenguas europeas occidentales. En función de la pronunciación que reciben las palabras préstamos de otras lenguas, es posible fechar la época en que se introdujeron en la lengua. Por ejemplo se sabe que el galicismo dame, (señora) entró antes de la mutación porque la a se pronuncia /e:/ Este hecho parece deberse al cruce de dos hábitos articulatorios de los franco-normandos y los anglosajones.

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Miembro Semi-Senior
Miembro Semi-Senior

Registrado: 06 Jul 2001
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MensajePublicado: Jue Oct 17, 2002 02:23    Asunto: Vacío Responder citando

En virtud de los valiosos aportes de Eliana y Dellwood, me permito extraer algunas conclusiones, muy personales por cierto.

Queda claramente establecido que el orígen más remoto y prolongado de los actuales Ingleses y por extensión, los Nortamericanos, se ubicaba en las inhóspitas tierras del extremo Norte de Europa.
Muchos estudiosos opinan que el riguroso clima en que se desarrollaron durante miles de años, influyó decisivamente en las caracterísitcas más perennes de los actuales Anglosajones y sus descendientes.

En regiones en que nada era fácil de obtener, cultivaron al máximo ciertas tendencias personales y grupales que les permitieron sobrevivir: el rigor sistemático, el apego a la tecnología, el culto a la fortaleza física, cierta avaricia, la eliminación natural de los más débiles o distintos por constituir un lastre para el grupo; tal vez también una cierta frialdad o tristeza casi congénita; el culto a lo útil, lo práctico, lo pragmático y un cierto desprecio (del vulgo) por las entelequias o expresiones más emocionales; el culto al trabajo, etc...

Hay quienes dicen que en general los pueblos de orígen Nórdico viven para trabajar, a diferencia de Españoles, Italianos o latinoamericanos que trabajamos para vivir.

Los invito a seguir con algunos tópicos que se desprenden de los aportes de Dellwood y Eliana, (y otros que se les ocurran),tales como:

-El inmemorial afán expansionista de los Anglosajones en busca de mejores hábitats y recursos naturales
-Su rechazo a los gobiernos (propios) absolutistas o dictatoriales; la constante defensa de sus libertades individuales en contraste con el sometimiento de otros pueblos
-el privilegio de las vías guerreras por sobre las vías políticas
- El Inglés como principal idioma actual de la humanidad, sus virtudes y defectos, y su evolución como reflejo de la trayectoria histórica de los Anglosajones

Carpe Noctem

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